Compound chondrule formation in optically thin shock wavesOPEN ACCESS 

Sota Arakawa, Taishi Nakamoto

Accepted for publication in ApJ

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“Shock-wave heating within the solar nebula is one of the leading candidates for the source of chondrule-forming events. Here, we examine the possibility of compound chondrule formation via optically thin shock waves. Several features of compound chondrules indicate that compound chondrules are formed via the collisions of supercooled precursors. We evaluate whether compound chondrules can be formed via the collision of supercooled chondrule precursors in the framework of the shock-wave heating model by using semi-analytical methods and discuss whether most of the crystallized chondrules can avoid destruction upon collision in the post-shock region. We find that chondrule precursors immediately turn into supercooled droplets when the shock waves are optically thin and they can maintain supercooling until the condensation of evaporated fine dust grains. Owing to the large viscosity of supercooled melts, supercooled chondrule precursors can survive high-speed collisions on the order of 1 km s−1 when the temperature is below ∼1400 K. From the perspective of the survivability of crystallized chondrules, shock waves with a spatial scale of ∼104 km may be potent candidates for the chondrule formation mechanism. Based on our results from one-dimensional calculations, a fraction of compound chondrules can be reproduced when the chondrule-to-gas mass ratio in the pre-shock region is ∼2×10−3, which is approximately half of the solar metallicity. “