Primordial water and dust of the Solar System: Insights from in-situ oxygen measurements of CI chondrites

Maxime Piralla, Yves Marrocchi, Maximilien J. Verdier-Paoletti, Lionel G. Vacher, Johan Villeneuve, Laurette Piani, David V. Bekaert, Matthieu Gounelle

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
In Press, Journal Pre-proof, Available online 6 November 2019


“As the chemical compositions of CI chondrites closely resemble that of the Sun’s photosphere, their oxygen isotopic compositions represent a powerful tool to constrain the origin and dynamics of dust and water ice grains in the protoplanetary disk. However, parent-body alteration processes make straightforward estimation of the primordial isotopic compositions of CI chondritic water and anhydrous minerals difficult. In this contribution, we used in-situ SIMS measurements to determine the oxygen isotope compositions of mechanically isolated olivine and carbonate grains from the CI chondrite Orgueil and carbonates in a polished section of the CI chondrite Ivuna. Most CI olivine grains have Earth-like O isotopic compositions (Δ17O ≈ 0‰) plotting at the intersection of the terrestrial fractionation line and the primitive chondrule minerals line. Ca-carbonates from Orgueil and Ivuna define a trend with δ17O = (0.50 ± 0.05) × δ18O + (0.9 ± 1.4) that differs from mass-independent variations observed in secondary phases of other carbonaceous chondrites. These data show that CIs are chemically solar but isotopically terrestrial for oxygen isotopes. This supports models suggesting that primordial Solar System dust was 16O-poor (Δ17O ≈ 0‰) relative to the 16O-rich nebular gas. Based on results, mass balance calculations reveal that the pristine O isotopic compositions of carbonaceous chondrite matrices differ significantly from the CI composition, except for CR chondrites (calculated Δ17O values of CM, CO, CV and CR matrices being –3.97 ± 1.19‰, –4.33 ± 1.45‰, –7.95 ± 1.95‰, and –0.07 ± 1.16‰, respectively). This confirms an open chondrule-matrix system with respect to oxygen isotopes where chondrule compositions reflect complex processes of chondrule precursor recycling and gas-melt interactions. As the Mg-Si-Fe chondrule budget is also partially controlled by gas-melt interactions, the complementary formation of chondrules and matrix from a single solar-like reservoir −if it exists− require that (i) this reservoir must have been in a closed system with the gas or (ii) the gas had a CI composition to satisfy the elemental mass balance.”