The spatial distribution of soluble organic matter and their relationship to minerals in the asteroid (162173) RyuguOPEN ACCESS 

Minako Hashiguchi, Dan Aoki, Kazuhiko Fukushima, Hiroshi Naraoka, Yoshinori Takano, Jason P. Dworkin, Karin E. Dworkin, José C. Aponte, Jamie E. Elsila, John M. Eiler, Yoshihiro Furukawa, Aogu Furusho, Daniel P. Glavin, Heather V. Graham, Kenji Hamase, Norbert Hertkorn, Junko Isa, Toshiki Koga, Hannah L. McLain, Hajime Mita, Yasuhiro Oba, Nanako O. Ogawa, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Francois-Regis Orthous-Daunay, Eric T. Parker, Alexander Ruf, Saburo Sakai, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Haruna Sugahara, Roland Thissen, Véronique Vuitton, Cédric Wolters, Toshihiro Yoshimura, Hisayoshi Yurimoto, Tomoki Nakamura, Takaaki Noguchi, Ryuji Okazaki, Hikaru Yabuta, Kanako Sakamoto, Shogo Tachibana, Toru Yada, Masahiro Nishimura, Aiko Nakato, Akiko Miyazaki, Kasumi Yogata, Masanao Abe, Tomohiro Usui, Makoto Yoshikawa, Takanao Saiki, Satoshi Tanaka, Fuyuto Terui, Satoru Nakazawa, Sei-ichiro Watanabe & Yuichi Tsuda

Earth, Planets and Space, Volume 75, Article number: 73


“We performed in-situ analysis on a ~ 1 mm-sized grain A0080 returned by the Hayabusa2 spacecraft from near-Earth asteroid (162173) Ryugu to investigate the relationship of soluble organic matter (SOM) to minerals. Desorption electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry (DESI-HRMS) imaging mapped more than 200 CHN, CHO, CHO–Na (sodium adducted), and CHNO soluble organic compounds. A heterogeneous spatial distribution was observed for different compound classes of SOM as well as among alkylated homologues on the sample surface. The A0080 sample showed mineralogy more like an Ivuna-type (CI) carbonaceous chondrite than other meteorites. It contained two different lithologies, which are either rich (lithology 1) or poor (lithology 2) in magnetite, pyrrhotite, and dolomite. CHN compounds were more concentrated in lithology 1 than in lithology 2; on the other hand, CHO, CHO–Na, and CHNO compounds were distributed in both lithologies. Such different spatial distribution of SOM is likely the result of interaction of the SOM with minerals, during precipitation of the SOM via fluid activity, or could be due to difference in transportation efficiencies of SOMs in aqueous fluid. Organic-related ions measured by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF–SIMS) did not coincide with the spatial distribution revealed by DESI-HRMS imaging. This result may be because the different ionization mechanism between DESI and SIMS, or indicate that the ToF–SIMS data would be mainly derived from methanol-insoluble organic matter in A0080. In the Orgueil meteorite, such relationship between altered minerals and SOM distributions was not observed by DESI-HRMS analysis and field-emission scanning electron microscopy, which would result from differences of SOM formation processes and sequent alteration process on the parent bodies or even on the Earth. Alkylated homologues of CHN compounds were identified in A0080 by DESI-HRMS imaging as observed in the Murchison meteorite, but not from the Orgueil meteorite. These compounds with a large C number were enriched in Murchison fragments with abundant carbonate grains. In contrast, such relationship was not observed in A0080, implying different formation or growth mechanisms for the alkylated CHN compounds by interaction with fluid and minerals on the Murchison parent body and asteroid Ryugu.”