Oort cloud perturbations as a source of hyperbolic Earth impactorsOPEN ACCESS 

Eloy Peña-Asensio, Jaakko Visuri, Josep M. Trigo-Rodríguez, Hector Socas-Navarro, Maria Gritsevich, Markku Siljama, Albert Rimola

Available online 26 October 2023, 115844



  • Analyzed FH1, the first hyperbolic meteor detected by the Finnish Fireball Network.
  • FH1 was a fast, height grazing meteor with an almost ecliptic orbit.
  • Considered FH1 as possibly interstellar or a centimeter asteroid-like body from the Oort cloud.
  • CNEOS hyperbolic fireballs are statistically unlikely to be of interstellar origin.
  • FH1 and the so-called IM2 may be consistent with having undergone gravitational perturbation during Scholz’s passage.”

“The observation of interstellar objects 1I/’Oumuamua and 2I/Borisov suggests the existence of a larger population of smaller projectiles that impact our planet with unbound orbits. We analyze an asteroidal grazing meteor (FH1) recorded by the Finnish Fireball Network on October 23, 2022. FH1 displayed a likely hyperbolic orbit lying on the ecliptic plane with an estimated velocity excess of 0.7 km s−1 at impact. FH1 may either be an interstellar object, indicating a high-strength bias in this population, or an Oort cloud object, which would reinforce migration-based solar system models. Furthermore, under the calculated uncertainties, FH1 could potentially be associated with the passage of Scholz’s binary star system. Statistical evaluation of uncertainties in the CNEOS database and study of its hyperbolic fireballs reveals an anisotropic geocentric radiant distribution and low orbital inclinations, challenging the assumption of a randomly incoming interstellar population. Orbital integrations suggest that the event on March 9, 2017 (IM2) from CNEOS may have experienced gravitational perturbation during the Scholz fly-by, contingent upon velocity overestimation within the expected range. These findings suggest that apparent interstellar meteors may, in fact, be the result of accelerated meteoroid impacts caused by close encounters with massive objects within or passing through our solar system.”