Geology of the Morasko craters, Poznań, Poland—Small impact craters in unconsolidated sediments

M. Szokaluk, R. Jagodziński, A. Muszyński, W. Szczuciński

Meteoritics & Planetary Science
First Published: 21 April 2019


“Confirmed small impact craters in unconsolidated deposits are rare on Earth, and only a few have been the subjects of detailed investigations. Consequently, our knowledge of indicators permitting unambiguous identification of such structures is limited. In this work, detailed geological mapping was performed in the area of the Morasko craters, of which the largest crater is of about 96 m diameter. These craters were formed in the mid‐Holocene (~5000 yr ago) in unconsolidated sediments of a glacial terminal moraine. Fragments of the impactor—an iron meteorite—have been found in the craters’ vicinity for many decades. Despite numerous studies of the meteorite, no detailed research concerning the geological structure around the craters and of the ejecta deposits has been undertaken. The new data, including evaluation of over 52 sediment cores and 260 shallow drillings, permit the identification of four main sediment types: Neogene clays, diamicton with Neogene clay clasts containing charcoal pieces, diamicton without clasts, and sand with locally preserved paleosoil and charcoal pieces. Based on sedimentological properties, the ejecta deposits are mainly identified as diamicton with Neogene clay clasts, described as lithic impact breccia, covering locally preserved pre‐impact soil. Moreover, crater sections characterized by inverse stratigraphy of sediments are identified as belonging to overturned flaps.”