Making the Solar SystemOPEN ACCESS 

John Chambers

Accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal


Update (16 February 2023): The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 944, Number 2

“We model the early stages of planet formation in the Solar System, including continual planetesimal formation, and planetesimal and pebble accretion onto planetary embryos in an evolving disk driven by a disk wind. The aim is to constrain aspects of planet formation that have large uncertainties by matching key characteristics of the Solar System. The model produces a good fit to these characteristics for a narrow range of parameter space. Planetary growth beyond the ice line is dominated by pebble accretion. Planetesimal accretion is more important inside the ice line. Pebble accretion inside the ice line is slowed by higher temperatures, partial removal of inflowing pebbles by planetesimal formation and pebble accretion further out in the disk, and increased radial velocities due to gas advection. The terrestrial planets are prevented from accreting much water ice because embryos beyond the ice linereach the pebble isolation mass before the ice line enters the terrestrial-planet region. When only pebble accretion is considered, embryos typically remain near their initial mass or grow to the pebble-isolation mass. Adding planetesimal accretion allows Mars-sized objects to form inside the ice line, and allows giant-planet cores to form over a wider region beyond the ice line. In the region occupied by Mercury, pebble Stokes numbers are small. This delays the formation of embryos and stunts their growth, so that only low-mass planets can form here.”