Solar System Abundances and Condensation Temperatures of the Halogens Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, and IodineOPEN ACCESS 

Katharina Lodders, Bruce Fegley Jr

Submitted to Chemie der Erde/Geochemistry October 2020, revised December 2022


“We review a large body of literature for concentrations of halogens in chondrites and stellar halogen data used for solar system abundances (i.e., representative abundances of the solar system at the time of its formation) and associated analytical problems. Claims of lower solar system chlorine, bromine and iodine abundances from recent analyses of CI-chondrites are untenable because of incompatibility of such low values with nuclear abundance systematics and measurements of halogens in the sun and other stars. We suspect analytical problems associated with these peculiar rock types caused lower analytical results in several studies. Mass concentrations in CI-chondrites are F=92+-20 ppm, Cl=717+-110 ppm, Br=3.77+-0.90 ppm, and I=0.77+-0.31 ppm, and abundances normalized to N(Si) =10^6 atoms are N(F)=1270+-270, N(Cl)=5290+-810, N(Br)=12.3+-2.9, and N(I)=1.59+-0.64. Meteoritic values scaled to present-day photospheric abundances with log N(H)=12 are A(F)=4.61+-0.09, A(Cl)=5.23+-0.06, A(Br)=2.60+-0.09, and A(I)=1.71+-0.15. These recommended present-day solar system abundances compare to the sunspot values of N(F)=776+-260, A(F)=4.40+-0.25, and N(Cl)=5500+-810, A(Cl)=5.25+-0.12 and are consistent with F and Cl abundance ratios in other stars and other astronomical environments. The chlorine abundance of 776+-21 ppm by Yokoyama et al. (2022) for the CI-chondrite-like asteroid Ryugu is consistent with the chlorine abundance evaluated for CI-chondrites here. Updated equilibrium 50% condensation temperatures from our previous work (Lodders 2003, Fegley & Schaefer 2010, Fegley & Lodders 2018) considering solid-solution and kinetic inhibition effects are 713K (F), 427K (Cl), 392K (Br) and 312K (I) at 10^-4 bar total pressure. Condensation temperatures computed with lower halogen abundances do not represent the correct condensation temperatures from a solar composition gas. (abridged)”